一, 概述

美术(Fine art)泛指与实用工具不同的,为了美学或概念而发展的任何艺术形式。此种艺术经常表现为使用可见或表演性的形式来创作艺术品,例如绘画 painting, 雕刻 sculpture, 舞蹈 dance, 戏剧 theatre, 建筑 architecture, 摄影 photography 和版画 printmaking。一些学校和研究机构仍然使用“美术”来形容传统的学术意义上的艺术形式。

https://sites.google.com/site/deepcast/Home/base/artbase/180px-Rembrandt_van_rijn-self_portrait.jpg?attredirects=0Self Portrait, Oil on Canvas, Rembrandt 1663

二、佛罗伦萨 烏菲茲美術館(贴图还未完,有空加) 所有的歷史都是現代史----談談Rembrandt van Rijn 水流记-魂魄丢失在维也纳

这是伦勃朗Rembrandt成熟期的作品之一,嘴角的深锁与眼神的痛苦,成功呈现出了不安的气氛出来。梵高曾面对伦勃朗的画说过,“你知道吗,我只要啃着硬面包在这幅画的前面坐上两个星期,那么即使少活十年也甘心。”这就是 伟大的艺术不朽的魅力。

https://sites.google.com/site/deepcast/Home/base/artbase/180px-Malevich.black-square.jpg?attredirects=0Black Square, Oil on Canvas, Kasimir Malevich. 1913 卡西米尔 马列维奇 黑正方形 大象无形——误读马列维奇的至上主义绘画 艺术何以会终结? 名画? 他的代表作《黑色正方形》(Black Square)已变成一种象征、一种鼓舞、一种典范,甚至成为那些寻求灵感及正当性的艺术家的参照或合理依据。


美术中的美(fine)指的不是艺术品的美丑质量,而是原则上的纯正。亚里士多德在《诗学》(参见附注)中认为诗的起源有两个原因:摹仿的本能;音调感和节奏感。都本于人的天性而非柏拉图所谓灵感的作用。这个传统的定义把一些可见艺术形式排除在外,比如被视为工艺品(craftwork)或应用艺术(applied art)的纺织品 (textiles),而在现代,随着众多媒介上的高级技艺的涌现,美术的现代定义更加广泛。fine art在英文中也被用来指某人的高超技艺。 美术和应用艺术的区别,主要是起源于英国工艺美术运动的支持者(如William Morris,主张把群众技艺纳入艺术范畴)和早期现代主义派(如Virginia Woolf和Bloomsbury学派,极力保持艺术的排他与神秘)的争论。

人们经常误会美术就是表演艺术(音乐舞蹈戏剧)。不过在经院定义中,美术是一门学科,包括传统美术、设计和表演艺术,甚至文学创作(creative writing)也被认为是一门美术。

二,二维工作 Two dimensional work

2.1 插图 Illustration:


http://www.hudong.com/wiki/插图 插图

http://wapedia.mobi/zh/插畫 插畫

2.2 绘画和绘画 Painting and drawing

https://sites.google.com/site/deepcast/Home/base/artbase/100px-Francisco_de_Goya_y_Lucientes_100_c.JPG?attredirects=0Goya,1795, Self-Portrait

Drawing is a form of visual expression and is one of the major forms within the visual arts. Common instruments include graphite pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, crayons, charcoals, chalk, pastels, markers, stylus, or various metals like silverpoint. There are a number of subcategories of drawing, including cartooning. Certain drawing methods or approaches, such as “doodling” and other informal kinds of drawing such as drawing in the fog a shower leaves on a bathroom mirror, or the surrealist method of “entopic graphomania,” in which dots are made at the sites of impurities in a blank sheet of paper, and lines are then made between the dots, may or may not be considered as part of “drawing” as a “fine art.” Drawings in blood may be denied Artistic Status

2.3 漫画 Comics

Comics are a graphic medium in which images are utilised in order to convey a sequential narrative. Comics are typically seen as a low art[5][6][7][8][9][10], although there are a few exceptions, such as Krazy Kat[11] and Barnaby. In the late 20th and early 21st century there has been a movement to rehabilitate the medium.

2.4 版画和成像 Printmaking and imaging

https://sites.google.com/site/deepcast/Home/base/artbase/100px-Melencolia_I.jpg?attredirects=0Melencolia I, 1514, Dürer

Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper. Except in the case of monotyping, the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a print. Each piece is not a copy but an original since it is not a reproduction of another work of art and is technically known as an impression. Painting or drawing, on the other hand, create a unique original piece of artwork. Prints are created from a single original surface, known technically as a matrix. Common types of matrices include: plates of metal, usually copper or zinc for engraving or etching; stone, used for lithography; blocks of wood for woodcuts, linoleum for linocuts and fabric plates for screen-printing. But there are many other kinds, discussed below. Works printed from a single plate create an edition, in modern times usually each signed and numbered to form a limited edition. Prints may also be published in book form, as artist's books. A single print could be the product of one or multiple techniques.

2.5 摄影 Photography


Fine Art Photography refers to photographs that are created to fulfill the creative vision of the artist. Fine art photography stands in contrast to photojournalism and commercial photography. Photojournalism provides visual support for stories, mainly in the print media. Fine art photography is created primarily as an expression of the artist’s vision, but has also been important in advancing certain causes. The work of Ansel Adams in Yosemite and Yellowstone provides an example. Adams is one of the most widely recognized fine art photographers of the 20th century, and was an avid promoter of conservation. While his primary focus was on photography as art, his work raised public awareness of the beauty of the Sierra Nevada and helped to build political support for their protection.

三,雕塑 Sculpture

https://sites.google.com/site/deepcast/Home/base/artbase/50px-Kolkhoznitsa.jpg?attredirects=0V Mukhina Kolhoznitsa 1937

Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping hard or plastic material, commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, or wood. Some sculptures are created directly by carving; others are assembled, built up and fired, welded, molded, or cast. Because sculpture involves the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated, it is considered one of the plastic arts. The majority of public art is sculpture. Many sculptures together in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden.

四,观念艺术 Conceptual Art

https://sites.google.com/site/deepcast/Home/base/artbase/100px-Oak_tree.jpg?attredirects=0An Oak Tree by Michael Craig-Martin. 1973

Conceptual art is art in which the concept(s) or idea(s) involved in the work take precedence over traditional aesthetic and material concerns. The inception of the term in the 1960s referred to a strict and focused practice of idea-based art that often defied traditional visual criteria associated with the visual arts in its presentation as text. However, through its association with the Young British Artists and the Turner Prize during the 1990s, its popular usage, particularly in the UK, developed as a synonym for all contemporary art that does not practise the traditional skills of painting and sculpture.[12]

五,舞 Dance

https://sites.google.com/site/deepcast/Home/base/artbase/100px-Morris.dancing.at.wells.arp.jpg?attredirects=0Morris dancing

Dance is an art form that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to music,[13] used as a form of expression, social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting. Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal communication (see body language) between humans or animals (bee dance, patterns of behaviour such as a mating dance), motion in inanimate objects (the leaves danced in the wind), and certain musical forms or genres. In sports, gymnastics, figure skating and synchronized swimming are dance disciplines while martial arts kata are often compared to dances.

六,剧院 Theatre

https://sites.google.com/site/deepcast/Home/base/artbase/150px-Royal_Opera_House_and_ballerina.jpg?attredirects=0The Royal Opera House, London

Modern Western theatre is dominated by realism, including drama and comedy. Another popular Western form is musical theater. Classical forms of theatre, including Greek and Roman drama, classic English drama including Shakespeare and Marlowe and French theater including Molière is still performed today. In addition, performances of classic Eastern forms such as Noh and Kabuki can be found in the West, although with less frequency. Fine arts film is a term that encompasses high quality motion pictures and the field of film as an fine art form. A fine arts movie theater are venues, usually a building, for viewing such movies. Films are produced by recording images from the world with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or special effects. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating — or indoctrinating — citizens. The visual elements of cinema gives motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. Cinematography is the discipline of making lighting and camera choices when recording photographic images for the cinema. It is closely related to the art of still photography, though many additional issues arise when both the camera and elements of the scene may be in motion. Independent filmmaking often takes place outside of Hollywood, or other major studio systems. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. Creative, business, and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century.

七,建筑 Architecture

https://sites.google.com/site/deepcast/Home/base/artbase/100px-Pantheon_Dome.JPG?attredirects=0The Pantheon

Architecture is frequently considered a fine art, especially if its aesthetic components are spotlighted [in contrast to structural-engineering or construction-management components]. Architectural works are perceived as cultural and political symbols and works of art. Historical civilizations are often known primarily through their architectural achievements. Such buildings as the pyramids of Egypt and the Roman Colosseum are cultural symbols, and are an important link in public consciousness, even when scholars have discovered much about a past civilization through other means. Cities, regions and cultures continue to identify themselves with (and are known by) their architectural monuments.[14]


Western art music is a performing art and frequently considered a fine art. Avant-garde music is frequently considered both a performing art and a fine art. Electronic Media (perhaps the newest medium for fine art, since it utilizes modern technologies such as computer hardware and software from production to presentation. Includes amongst other things video, digital photography, digital printmaking and interactive pieces). Textiles, including quilt art and “wearables” or “pre-wearables” are frequently considered fine art if part of an art display


亚里士多德《诗学》英文版 The Origin and Development of Poetry 笔记:亚里士多德《诗学》导 言 亚里士多德《诗学》概括


“Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature. Next, there is the instinct for 'harmony' and rhythm, meters being manifestly sections of rhythm. Persons, therefore, starting with this natural gift developed by degrees their special aptitudes, till their rude improvisations gave birth to Poetry.” -Aristotle

Fine art

美术是一种艺术, 一般指除了建筑艺术之外的造型艺术的通称,一般分为两大类,即:纯美术和工艺美术两类